Comparative Aspects of Mechanoreceptor Systems by B. Martinac, A. H. Delcour, M. Buechner, J. Adler, C. Kung

By B. Martinac, A. H. Delcour, M. Buechner, J. Adler, C. Kung (auth.), Professor Fumio Ito (eds.)

In the prior five years there was a tremendous elevate of facts that the ion channels activated by way of mechanical strength are universal to a large choice of mobilephone kinds. Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels shape a small percentage of the full channel inhabitants. they're now present in greater than 30 cellphone kinds from E. coli, yeast, to plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate cells, the place they take place in almost all kinds of cells from bone to delicate muscle, in addition to neurons. the vast majority of MS channels are permeable to monovalent cations and are a bit selective for ok+ over Na +. How­ 2 ever, there are numerous reviews of anion-selective MS channels, MS Ca + channels, and MS channels with huge conductances that don't dis­ criminate markedly among cations and anions. lately B. Hille has postulated attainable evolutionary relationships among various kinds of ion channels, with mechanosensitive channels predating even the eukaryotes. voltage-gated channel forms originate with the stem eukaryotes, as deduced from the presence of voltage-gated okay+ 2 and Ca + channels in protozoa, algae, or larger crops. Agonist-gated chan­ nels in addition to voltage-gated Na + channels look with the earliest metazoan animals, as deduced from the presence of Na + spikes and quickly chemical synapses in cnidaria (coelenterates), ctenophores, and all better animals.

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Moreover, Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts have been patch-clamped (Lew 1990). Still to be developed in this system is a method for isolating and patch-clamping the specific root cells involved in graviception. Yeast respond to changes in external osmolarity by changing the cytoplasmic concentration of glycerol (Reed et al. 1987). An upshift in external osmolarity causes an equivalent upshift in internal glycerol (Maiorella et al. 1984; Meikle et al. 1988). It has been proposed that this is a response to altered turgor pressure (Meikle et al.

2 Mechanisms of Activation of Mechanosensitive Channels . . . . . . . . 1 Patch versus Whole-Cell Recordings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Pressure versus Tension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Molecular Hypotheses of MS Channel Activation . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Mechanisms of Adaptation of Mechanosensitive Channels . . . . . . . . 4 Physiological Function of Mechanosensitive Channels in Walled Organisms . .

Mechanosensitive Ion Channels in Yeast. 3 Molecular Hypotheses of MS Channel Activation Although there is no biochemical data concerning the molecular composition ofMS channels and how their activity is regulated, several biophysical models of the gating mechanism have been proposed. The predictions of these models help to guide electrophysiological experiments on the gating of these interesting channels. Three different molecular models have been proposed to account for the regulation of MS channel activity by mechanical force on the cell membrane.

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