Auger electron spectroscopy : practical application to by John Wolstenholme

By John Wolstenholme

This booklet discusses using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and scanning Auger microscopy for the characterization of quite a lot of technological fabrics, together with, metals and alloys, semiconductors, nanostructures, and insulators. Its price as a device for high-resolution elemental imaging and compositional intensity profiling is illustrated and the application of the procedure for acquiring compositional details from the surfaces, interfaces, and skinny movie constructions of technological and engineering fabrics is tested. This quantity additionally describes the elemental actual ideas of AES in basic, mostly qualitative phrases. significant elements of usual Auger spectrometers also are defined. The booklet discusses different kinds of research for which an Auger electron spectrometer can be used, for instance, secondary electron microscopy, backscattered electron imaging, X-ray spectroscopy, in addition to the connection among AES and different research options

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So far, this is the only element to be named after a nonmythological woman. Pierre Victor Auger, a French physicist, reported the phenomenon of what is now known as Auger electron emission in 1925. He had been studying the X-ray photoelectron emission from gaseous atoms using a cloud chamber. He noted that some of the electrons emitted, following ionization by X-rays, originated from the ionized atom, not from the neutral species. This he interpreted as being due to a radiationless relaxation of the ion.

This can result in a map of the elemental composition of the surface having a very high l­ateral resolution. An instrument capable of this type of analysis is ­frequently Units used in this book will adhere to the SI system with one exception. In line with common practice, the kinetic energy and binding energy of electrons and kinetic energy of ions will be expressed in electron volts (eV). 602 × 10−19 joules. 4 • AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY referred to as a scanning Auger microscope by analogy with the scanning electron microscope.

If the primary beam can be scanned over the surface of the sample this type of detector allows the instrument to acquire secondary electron (SE) images which can be extremely helpful in locating small features on the sample for analysis. In a scanning Auger spectrometer, this could be classified as an essential piece of equipment. An ion gun serves three useful purposes on an AES instrument. 1. Components that are fitted to an Auger electron spectrometer 8 • AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY Optional Preparation chamber and preparation devices Backscattered electron detector X-ray spectrometer X-ray source This can be added to instruments having a spherical sector type of energy analyzer.

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