By Stephan Haggard
This is the 1st booklet to match the special welfare states of Latin the US, East Asia, and japanese Europe. Stephan Haggard and Robert Kaufman hint the old origins of social coverage in those areas to the most important political alterations within the mid-twentieth century, and convey how the legacies of those early offerings are influencing welfare reform following democratization and globalization.
After global struggle II, communist regimes in jap Europe followed wide-ranging socialist entitlements whereas conservative dictatorships in East Asia sharply constrained social safety yet invested in schooling. In Latin the US, the place welfare structures have been instituted previous, unequal social-security platforms favourite formal quarter employees and the center class.
Haggard and Kaufman evaluate the several welfare paths of the international locations in those areas following democratization and the flow towards extra open economies. even if those modifications generated strain to reform latest welfare platforms, financial functionality and welfare legacies exerted a extra profound impression. The authors convey how exclusionary welfare platforms and monetary trouble in Latin the USA created incentives to undertake liberal social-policy reforms, whereas social entitlements from the communist period restricted the scope of liberal reforms within the new democracies of japanese Europe. In East Asia, excessive development and permissive monetary stipulations supplied possibilities to develop social entitlements within the new democracies.
This publication highlights the significance of putting the modern results of democratization and globalization right into a broader historic context.
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Extra info for Development, Democracy, and Welfare States: Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe
15 This subﬁeld has moved forward through intense theoretical debate, which has, in turn, spurred the collection of new data and outstanding empirical work across disciplines. We now have a much greater understanding of the evolution and distributive impact of social policy in the advanced welfare states (see Huber and Stephens 2005 for a compact review). Despite ongoing controversy, the literature has converged around a relatively limited set of core metatheoretical preoccupations, including the role of distributive interests and their partisan representatives; the changing relationship between underlying economic structure, shorter-run economic performance, and welfare commitments; and the mediating role of political institutions.
However, these expectations can be undercut both by economic constraints and by pressure from interest groups. Conversely, authoritarian regimes can, under speciﬁed circumstances, produce positive distributive effects. The research program on welfare and social policy needs to broaden its horizon beyond the democratic cases, to consider whether the beneﬁts of democracy hold, if not why not, and under which conditions authoritarian regimes may be responsive to the interests of the poor. Such a research project would join the historical work on the European welfare state with the consideration of the developing and socialist systems we consider here.
Growth remained robust in most of them until the ﬁnancial crisis of 1997–98, providing the new democracies with the wherewithal to expand the state role in the provision of social insurance and services. The crisis of 1997–98 posed similar constraints to those seen in Latin America and Eastern Europe but did not pose the same fundamental challenge to the prior development model. Fiscal constraints were cyclical, rather than long-term and structural in nature, and as a result, new entitlements generally survived the crisis intact.