By Gert R. Strobl
Derived from lectures on the college of Freiburg, this textbook introduces solid-state physics in addition to the physics of drinks, liquid crystals and polymers. The 5 chapters care for the foremost features of condensed topic: buildings, susceptibilities, molecular fields, currents, and dynamics. the writer strives to give and clarify coherently the phrases and ideas linked to the most homes and features of condensed topic, whereas minimizing realization to extraneous information. for this reason, this article presents the enterprise and large foundation of realizing that readers require for extra learn and research.
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Additional info for Condensed Matter Physics: Crystals, Liquids, Liquid Crystals, and Polymers
In the following, we will discuss, for the example of the X-ray scattering experiment, how interference occurs and how it can be treated. 1 Interference In an X-ray scattering experiment, monochromatic radiation is usually employed, for example, the characteristic Kα radiation of a Cu anode. The primary radiation can be described as a plane wave with an amplitude E0 : E0 exp(−iω0 t + ikr) . 84) The wave hits the particles, atoms or molecules, and excites dipolar vibrations. Consider ﬁrst a vibrating dipole at the origin of the coordinate system.
100) Substituting Eq. 98) into Eq. 100) gives S(q) = 1 N N exp[−iq(r j − r k )] j,k = 1 . 5 Structural Investigations Using Scattering Experiments 53 S(q) is a well-deﬁned function. It appears in the literature under diﬀerent names such as the interference function, the scattering function, or, since it characterises the structure, the structure function. , the calculation of the interference function from measured scattered intensities. 101) is generally applicable and can be applied to all types of condensed matter, be it liquid or solid – this indeed will be done in the following sections.
Visible. , points where the director ﬁeld is not ﬁxed. As can be seen, these are found exactly at the starting or branching points of the strands. The points are the ends of line-like singularities which form within the sample. Frank has introduced the term disclination for this defect which is characteristic for nematic liquid crystals. As illustrated in Fig. 16, there are diﬀerent types of disclinations – Fig. 17 presents in schematic form two further examples. 3 Liquid Crystals 25 Fig. 16. A nematic phase, for which the director ﬁeld has been made visible by means of a surface staining technique.