Conductive Electroactive Polymers by Gordon G.; Spinks Geoffrey M.; Kane-Maguire, Leon A. P.;

By Gordon G.; Spinks Geoffrey M.; Kane-Maguire, Leon A. P.; Teasdale, Pe ? Wallace

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Interaction between the probe tip and the sample drives a feedback system that allows topographical mapping of the sample surface. 29 Force–distance plot for (a) polypyrrole (NO3−) and (b) polyaniline (HCl) on carbon foil. ing microscopy (STM) uses the tunneling current between the tip and the (electrically conductive) surface, whereas atomic force microscopy (AFM) uses the force of attraction (or repulsion) between the tip and the sample surface. The resolution of the piezoelectric transducers used to move the tip is such that atomic-scale resolution can be achieved (magnification × 109).

67 Such gels are inherently more stable, both environmentally and electrochemically, than traditional SPEs. 5 V potential difference between the polymer electrodes. 11). The composition of the membrane. The porosity as determined by the CEP and/or a more porous substrate onto which the polymer may be coated. 3. The electrochemical conditions used during operation (potential pulse height and pulse width are critical). Switching the polymer repeatedly between its available oxidation states facilitates transport of ionic/molecular species through the polymer membrane.

Selectivity to certain ions is based on size and charge. An exciting prospect is in chiral separations, where chiral-conducting polymers can discriminate between different hands of the target molecule. 12 Electrochemically controlled liquid chromatography column. The full utilization of this fascinating new membrane technology is currently limited by our ability to process and fabricate large-surface-area membrane structures at a reasonable cost. 76,77 Electrochemically controlled chemical behavior can also be used to design surfaces capable of selective molecular recognition.

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