By Thorsten M. Buzug
This quantity presents an outline of X-ray expertise and the ancient improvement of recent CT platforms. the main target of the e-book is a close derivation of reconstruction algorithms in 2nd and glossy 3D cone-beam platforms. a radical research of CT artifacts and a dialogue of useful matters corresponding to dose concerns supply extra perception into present CT platforms.
Although written in general for graduate scholars of biomedical engineering, scientific physics, medication (radiology), arithmetic, electric engineering, and physics, practitioners in those fields also will make the most of this book.
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Extra resources for Computed Tomography: From Photon Statistics to Modern Cone-Beam CT
2 Fundamentals of X-ray Physics consider the X-ray to be monochromatic within the mathematical reconstruction process. Artifacts due to beam hardening will be discussed in Sect. . In Fig. the X-ray spectrum of a tungsten anode is shown. The beam hardening is demonstrated by a source side aluminum and copper ﬁlter respectively. Generally, a ﬂat metal ﬁlter measuring a few millimeters is mounted to the X-ray tube. The ﬁltering of the useful beam reduces the number of X-ray quanta while increasing the average energy of the radiation.
The electron of a lower shell is kicked oﬀ the atom and travels through the material as a free photoelectron. The energy balance of this ionizing process is given by Eion (Atom+ ) + Ekin (e − ) . ) means that the electron leaves the atom with a kinetic energy equal to the diﬀerence between the quantum energy of the incident photon and the binding energy of the electron. This energy diﬀerence is removed from the primary beam and transferred locally to the lattice in the form of heat. The vacancy left by the electron that was kicked out is ﬁlled by electrons from outer shells or, in the case of solids, by electrons from the band.
Due to the fact that the mass density ρ of the gas xenon is three magnitudes smaller than the mass density of the solid-state detector material, the eﬀective absorption of quanta inside the solid-state detector, and therefore its quantum eﬃciency, is signiﬁcantly higher. This can be only partially compensated by long Xe chambers and a high gas pressure. In Fig. the components of a scintillator detector unit are shown schematically. On the right-hand side of Fig. a detector unit of the Philips Tomoscan EG is shown.