Ultrasound in gynecology and obstetrics by Sam N. Hassani M.D. (auth.)

By Sam N. Hassani M.D. (auth.)

by Dr. Donald L. King The prior decade has visible the ascent of ultrasonography to a preeminent place as a diagnostic imaging modality for obstetrics and gynecology. it may be acknowledged with out qualification that smooth obstetrics and gynecology can't be practiced with out using diagnostic ultrasound, and specifically, using ultrasonogra­ phy. Ultrasonography fast and appropriately presents distinct, excessive­ solution pictures of the pelvic organs and gravid uterus. the standard and volume of diagnostic info received by means of extremely­ sonography a long way exceeds whatever formerly to be had and has had a innovative effect at the administration of sufferers. excessive­ answer static photos allow the intrauterine analysis of fetal development retardation and fetal abnormalities. as well as tradi­ tional photographs, more moderen dynamic imaging concepts enable observa­ tion of fetal movement, cardiac pulsation, and respiration efforts. using ultrasonography for suggestions has significantly augmented the protection and application of amniocentesis. one of many nice virtues of diagnostic ultrasound has been its obvious defense. at the present power degrees, diagnostic ultrasound seems to be with none injurious impression. even if the entire availa­ ble facts means that it's a very secure modality and that the convenience to threat ratio is particularly excessive, the particular protection margin for its use Vll as but is still unknown. thus, practitioners are suggested to restrict its use purely to these occasions during which real scientific indica­ tions exist and actual profit to the sufferer is probably going to result.

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Ultrasound in gynecology and obstetrics

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In certain cases, difficulty in positioning the transducer and factors such as obesity can attenuate the returned ultrasound. One aspect of the art of ultrasonography is to be aware of target displacement from the transducer and make corrections. Selection of a proper scanning speed is important if every echo produced is to be recorded (37). If the scanning speed is too fast, many reflected echoes will be missed by the receiving transducer. If the speed is too slow, artifactual echoes may be produced because the reflected sound will have a higher signal concentration in specific areas at a given period of time.

If the sound source moves toward the observer during measurement a greater number of peaks will be counted and the calculated frequency will be greater than the "true" frequency. On the other hand, if the sound source moves away from the observer the calculated frequency will be lower than the "true" frequency. This phenomenon also occurs if the observer moves toward or away from the 3Ource. The Doppler effect can be used in the detection of the moving organ by using two crystals, one crystal generating a continuous ultrasonic beam emitted toward the organ of interest and second receiving the reflected echo.

Therefore, all sections anterior to the right (RDA) or left (LDA) decubitus axillary line are plus sections, and all sections posterior to the axillary lines are minus sections. ERECT PROJECTION If the patient is sitting, instead of the term decubitus (D) we use the term erect (E), and abbreviations such as REC or LEC and REA or LEA are used. These views are specifically used to study the chest wall, as for pleural effusion, and to evaluate the effect of gravity on abdominal structures, ptotic organs, or positional changes of organ relationships in normal and abnormal conditions in the supine, semierect, and erect positions.

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