Competitiveness In Research And Development: Comparisons And by Adam Torok, Balazs Borsi, Andras Telcs

By Adam Torok, Balazs Borsi, Andras Telcs

This ebook builds at the premise that the effectiveness of nationwide efforts to extend spending on R&D will be approximated via the competitiveness of that economic climate in foreign markets. construction on a couple of present ‘benchmarking’ reviews that experience up to now merely ranked international locations in accordance both to their R&D signs, or their performances in innovation, this is often the 1st publication to supply a synthesized review of the R&D competitiveness of nationwide economies in accordance with either enter and output similar symptoms. a number of quantitative tools are used to mix those lists with a large choice of R&D symptoms. The publication confirms one of many significant premises of the Lisbon approach – that Europe is considerably lagging in the back of its abroad opponents in R&D.

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This concept says that perfect competition exists only if no government measure can further improve consumer welfare. This is kind of an acid test: not the condition itself is assessed, but the lack of any possibility of improving it indicates that it is probably close to optimal. An asset of the shorthand approach is that it is not defined in a way contradicting with any of the other four concepts. Its practical value is stressed along with the de facto impossibility of finding a theoretically appropriate definition of competition.

The UVI indicator shows whether the country in question was able to increase the unit value of its exports faster than its competitors or not. This indicates an important aspect of export performance, namely the extent to which the specific demand facing the exports of the given country was resistant to price increases in those exports as compared to direct competition. The indicator is often applied with corrective factors filtering out the short-term impacts of exchange rate fluctuations. A really serious methodological problem in applying this indicator is related to export subsidies.

International trade statistics use such physical units of measurement as pieces or tons, all of which are highly unsuitable for an integrated analysis of high value added and differentiated product groups such as drugs, electronics goods or complex engineering products. The methodological pitfall of the application of the UVI can be avoided by comparing the unit values of exports and imports of the same commodity groups for each country analysed. This is a practical and in most cases probably feasible compromise, but some constraints have to be kept in mind: 1.

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