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Extra info for Building-Mounted Photovoltaics
A good compromise is to use the lowest sun altitude at either two hours before or two hours after solar noon. Flat Versus Tilted Arrays Once row spacing is determined, a designer may proceed with the more detailed aspects of layout using the physical characteristics of the module. Because of the required spacing between rows to minimize shading of tilted arrays, a given area can contain a flat-mounted array (0º tilt) of higher-rated capacity than a tilted array in the same area. 15 compares the rated capacities of three arrays occupying the same roof area, but incorporating tilts of 0º, 10º and 25º on a building in El Paso, Texas (latitude 32º).
Designing BMPV Systems Photovoltaic modules can be mounted on buildings in a variety of ways. Stationary collectors mounted on rooftops can either be mounted flat or tilted at an angle to optimize electricity production. Trough-type concentrating collectors, which present a low profile, can also be mounted on rooftops. Externally mounted Systems Externally mounted systems are added to the fabric or structure of a building. They include not only rooftop systems, but facades and shading devices. Minimizing the Effects of Wind Loading Wind loading is one of the more serious issues for a PV designer.
Shallow angles produce higher output during the summer months, while steeper angles optimize the performance during winter months. If, for example, it is desired to offset high air-conditioning loads during the summer, a shallow tilt angle should be considered. 47 Month Source: PVWatts, Version 1, NREL Calculating the Spacing between Rows The spacing between rows is dependent upon two factors: the tilt angle and the overall height of the array when mounted on its support structure. Often the spacing is determined by the collector system.