Alloy and Microstructural Design by John K. Tien

By John K. Tien

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A. Aluminum Alloys The high-strength, wrought aluminum alloys are divided into those that are heat treatable and those that are not. The heat-treatable alloys all derive their strength from precipitation hardening. The precipitation reaction is usually a sequence that proceeds by two or more stages. These sequences have been studied in most binary alloys of interest and have been summarized by Kelly and Nicholson (1963) and Brown and Ham (1971). Most commercially important wrought Al alloys are based on ternary or quaternary systems, A l - M g - C u , A l - M g - Z n , A l - M g - Z n - C u , and Al-Mg-Si being the most prevalent.

This type of cold-rolled material has re­ cently been used in improved electrical relay springs. In C u - 0 . 5 % Zr, strengthening is provided by dislocation substruc­ ture introduced by cold-working. Little attention has been devoted to the role of texture in this material. The Zr is added to retard recovery and recrystallization during elevated temperature service. The precise mechanism of such retardation has not been investigated but it is 2 3 3 43 II High-Strength Nonferrous Alloys suggested that Z r - O clusters will form in this material because of the strong interaction between zirconium and oxygen.

The α-phase alloys are hexagonal and can therefore also be strengthened by texture. Figures 20a and 20b show the pole figure and plots of yield strength as a func­ tion of loading direction and temperature for a T i - 6 % Al α-phase alloy. These results show that a texture which aligns eight times the random density of basal poles results in a 60% increase in yield strength (Paton VO ο 1600 —ι 1400 \ 1 1 1— [ I I 1 « 1 160 120 1200 ~ χ 1000 Y I E L D STRE ι/ι 800 \ \ THROUGH THICKNESS ^^COMPRESSION \ 80 £ 600 400 LONGITUDINAL TENSION"""*' 200 η "0 200 400 600 800 1000 TEMPERATURE (°K) (b) Fig.

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