Activated Carbon by Hassler J.W.

By Hassler J.W.

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G. degradation, discolouration, brittleness or reduction in other physical properties sterilisation but here the source is less penetrating than gamma rays and it is therefore normal to irradiate individual pre-packed products under the electron beam, before bulk packaging. The dose selection is based on a 49 The Role of Poly(Vinyl Chloride) in Healthcare knowledge of the radiation resistance of various microbial species together with scientific data revealing the influence of environmental conditions on such resistance.

A prime example is nitroglycerine solutions used in the treatment of angina pectoris. Forty to eighty percent of the total amount of nitroglycerine in the final diluted solution for infusion is absorbed by the PVC tubing of the intravenous administration sets currently in general use. The higher rates of absorption occur when flow rates are low, nitroglycerine concentrations are high and tubing is long. Although the rate of loss is highest during the early phase of administration (when flow rates are lowest), the loss is neither constant nor self-limiting; consequently, no simple calculation or correction can be performed to convert the theoretical infusion rate (based on the concentration of the infusion solution) to the actual delivery rate.

5 Mrad (35 kGy) for electron beam irradiation. In the United States the dose varies according to the nature and use of the device, taking account of the numbers and sterilisation resistance of the contaminants involved. 5 Mrad (15–25 kGy). 3 that the radiation stability of PVC compounds is good in comparison with a number of competing polymers. One observes, however, a straw yellow colour development in PVC compounds during the process, particularly those containing little or no plasticiser. This effect can be minimised by careful pigment selection or formulation modification.

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