By Frank Dehn, Hans-Dieter Beushausen, Mark G Alexander, Pilate Moyo
The Fourth foreign convention on Concrete fix, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting (ICCRRR 2015) used to be held 5-7 October 2015 in Leipzig, Germany. This convention is a collaborative enterprise by means of researchers from the South African study Programme in Concrete fabrics (based on the Universities of Cape city and The Witwatersrand) and the cloth technological know-how workforce at Leipzig collage and The Leipzig Institute for Materials Research and checking out (MFPA) in Germany.
ICCRRR 2015 keeps to hunt and to increase a valid base of idea and perform in fix and rehabilitation, via either theoretical andexperimental stories, and during stable case research literature. key points must be addressed: that of constructing sound and simply utilized average practices for fix, very likely codified, and the necessity to research heavily the provider functionality of repaired constructions and service structures. actually, with no making mammoth efforts to enforce the latter objective, a lot of the hassle in fix and rehabilitation may well turn out to be under low-cost or satisfactory.
The convention lawsuits include papers provided on the convention that are grouped below the six major subject matters of (i) Concrete sturdiness elements, (ii) situation overview of concrete buildings, (iii) sleek fabrics expertise, (iv) Concrete fix, rehabilitation and retrofitting, (v) functionality and health and wellbeing tracking and (vi)
Education, learn and requisites. the massive variety of top of the range papers offered and the wide variety of correct issues lined verify that those court cases might be a valued reference for plenty of operating during this vital box and they will shape an appropriate base for dialogue and supply feedback for destiny improvement and examine. Set of ebook of abstracts (244 pp) and a searchable complete paper CD-ROM (1054 pp).
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Additional resources for Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting IV: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting
This formula was taken as a basis to convert the NMR signal into a degree of saturation. First of all, to ensure a proportional dependency between the measured NMR signal intensity (in the considerable time domain for the intended investigation) and the water saturation, samples with different water/cement ratio and different levels of saturation were examined. For this, evacuated samples were first saturated in water under 150 bar pressure and dried slowly. Frequently the intensity of the NMR signal given by the whole sample was measured (analyzed by FID).
Thereafter the freezethaw attack starts. The NMR measurements were performed after 2, 4, 6, 8, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 28 and 30 FTC. As can be seen, the cyclic exposure provokes an increase of the saturation degree that outweighs the one from the pure capillary suction (compare Fig. 10 with Fig. 9) at each measurement point of the sample. Furthermore there is a faster transportation of water into the sample. 0 is reached Figure 10. 4 during the frost suction (SPI with 70 μs echo time). Figure 11. Setup for the in situ one-sided temperature control.
3 Results Figure 9. 4 during the capillary suction (SPI with 70 μs echo time). 7. After exposing the surface (z = 8 mm) to water the degree of saturation increases in the first millimeters. The first profile after water exposure was measured after only three days of capillary suction. 9 in the first 5 mm. In the course of the water uptake two effects were observed. 0 and on the other hand the water front is propagating slowly into the sample. 8. after only 2 FTC and even exceeded. The reason is the dilatation of the freezing water in the pores and the related expansion of the pores.