By Jadwiga A. Wedzicha, Fernando J. Martinez
power Obstructive Pulmonary affliction Exacerbations covers the definition, analysis, epidemiology, mechanisms, and therapy linked to COPD exacerbations. this article additionally addresses imaging and the way it performs a pivotal function within the prognosis and research of exacerbations. Written through today’s most sensible specialists, continual Obstructive Pulmonary affliction Exacerbations: is formatted into separate sections overlaying imaging analysis and remedy, making this article useful and easy-to-use examines present and leap forward pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic remedies comprises COPD-causing exacerbations resembling viral and bacterial infections discusses the unfavorable environmental components in relation to COPD
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Extra resources for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations (Lung Biology in Health and Disease)
Practical applications in clinical settings require definitions that are empirically grounded and validated and applicable to individuals, in contrast to populations. There are four dimensions of exacerbations to consider when defining exacerbations. Definitions that summarize the essential features of exacerbations inform the development of empirical methods for capturing the presence or frequency of these events. Descriptions of variability in magnitude inform operational definitions of severity and duration.
For example, conducted a telephone survey of 1100 subjects reporting symptoms consistent with COPD and/or taking medication for a respiratory problem other than asthma (17). Symptoms of exacerbation with the greatest impact on well-being were increased coughing (42%), increased shortness of breath (37%), increased fatigue (37%), increased sputum production (35%), increased frequency of chest pains (20%), and fever (13%). Serious activity limitations were also reported, with nearly half (45%) reporting having to stay in bed or on the couch all day.
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 20. Health Economic Consequences of COPD Exacerbations . . . Marc Miravitlles 225 218 221 222 222 223 223 . . . 225 225 226 230 231 21. Use of Bronchodilators and Mucolytics at COPD Exacerbations . . Wim Janssens and Marc Decramer 233 I. II. III. IV. Introduction . . . Costs of COPD . . Economic Impact of Conclusions . . . References . . . ........... Exacerbations ........... . . . . . . . . . .