By Christopher Peacocke
Being identified is a reaction to a philosophical problem which arises for each sector of notion: to reconcile a believable account of what's curious about the reality of statements in a given quarter with a reputable account of ways we will be able to recognize these statements. Christopher Peacocke provides a framework for addressing the problem, a framework which hyperlinks either the speculation of information and the speculation of fact with the speculation of concept-possession.
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That each of these is indeed a presupposition is evidenced in part by the fact that the thinker would be rationally obliged to reassess his judgement ‘That's a phone’ were he to come to believe that any one of them failed to hold. As before, similar points apply to judgements based on the deliverances of experiential memory, of non-personal memory, and of testimony. There are also requirements for the status of being rationally non-discretionary which operate recursively. If a belief is inferred from a set of other beliefs, the inferred belief is rationally non-discretionary only if every member of the set from which it is inferred is rationally 26 TRUTH, CONTENT, AND THE EPISTEMIC non-discretionary.
A rationally discretionary judgement is based on evidence which is inconclusive, even given the thinker's own other attitudes and presuppositions. It will be obvious to the thinker herself that it cannot amount to knowledge. Judgements which are rationally non-discretionary are very different. That they aim at knowledge is shown by the conditions under which they will be withdrawn. Suppose you judge ‘That's a coin’ on the basis of your perceptual state. Suppose that this judgement is, given your other beliefs and presuppositions, rationally non-discretionary.
The conclusion is not that there is, for concepts individuated in terms of outright judgement, a layer of epistemic requirements in addition to those formulated in terms of judgements. The argument is rather that when we appreciate the rationally non-discretionary nature of the judgements mentioned in such possession conditions, we are in a position to develop an argument that there are requirements for the possession of such concepts which can equally be formulated in terms of knowledge. The point is not that the formulation of the possession condition in terms of judgement is in some way incorrect.