Efficient organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by Yi-Lu Chang

By Yi-Lu Chang

Following twenty years of severe study globally, the natural light-emitting diode (OLED) has progressively emerged because the final demonstrate know-how of selection for the arrival a long time. transportable energetic matrix OLED monitors have already develop into commonly used, or even large-sized ultra-high definition 4K TVs are being heavily produced. extra unique purposes akin to wearable screens were commercialized lately. With the burgeoning luck in monitors, researchers are actively bringing the expertise ahead into the interesting solid-state lights marketplace.

This booklet offers the data wanted for college kids and researchers from assorted disciplines to appreciate the underlying ideas in OLED expertise. It starts with a short background and basic operating rules of OLEDs. After introducing the basics, it discusses extra effective OLED designs, in addition to complicated concepts to augment the functionality. The textual content covers intimately very important parts akin to top-emission, p- and n-type doping, gadget balance, mild extraction, and stacked white OLEDs. It additionally throws mild at the present perform and significant components of concentration within the close to future.

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Without such green harvesting dopant, the ηEQE of the greenish-yellow dopant could only reach ~15%, whereas after the incorporation of the harvesting dopant, the efficiency was enhanced to over 21% (see Fig. 3a). This suggests a considerable amount of excitons leaked through the greenish-yellow EML, but were recaptured by the green dopants and delivered via energy transfer back to the greenish-yellow dopants. 53,54 This demonstrate a simple way to enhance the performance of monochromatic organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

1 Energy band diagram of an OLED (a) and an inorganic LED (b). Reproduced with permission from Ref. [67]. Copyright 2009, American Chemical Society. 1 depicts energy band structures of an inorganic and an OLED device. In the inorganic light-emitting diode (LED) case (Fig. 1b), the emitter layer, characterized by a lower energy gap, is sandwiched between two highly n- and p-doped transport layers. Because of the high conductivity of these transport layers, Ohmic losses are negligible and the band edges are almost flat as there is nearly no voltage drop.

2b. This led to a device that is superior to traditional TEOLED with a single Ag top contact, as shown in Fig. 2c, which represents a breakthrough in TEOLED technology. Yet its performance is still slightly behind that of the BEOLED employing an ITO/glass contact. To understand the microcavity effect in TEOLEDs, it is best to model such a structure as a Fabry–Perot resonator, where the anode and cathode are considered two parallel mirrors. 1) Here, l is the peak emission wavelength, Lcav = nd (n is the refractive index and d is the cavity thickness) denotes the optical cavity thickness, and RB and RT represent the reflectivity of the bottom and top contacts, respectively.

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