Discourse and Grammar: Focussing and Defocussing in English by Peter Erdmann

By Peter Erdmann

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Secondary modifiers behave like predicators. Some examples of this with ÎO are: The Greeks and the Romans were planners; so too were the great medieval architects and builders and their seventeenth and eighteenth century successors. (Times 10 June 74, 8: 7) But once lay-offs become more apparent consumers will quickly change their presumptions. So will politicians. (Economist 17-23 August 74, 71: 4) While the price was rising, so were Japan's imports... (Economist 10-16 August 74, 73: 1) The meaning of ÍO and as is very similar, but a slight difference could lie in the fact that whilst so expands the validity of the predicator by one subject, as establishes the predicator as being equally valid for two subjects.

H e r e are some of the relevant points: 18 1. e. they do not require do support in questions, negations or inversions. (27) They (will) like Ihe new show. (28) Will they like t h e new show? (29) ' L i k e t h e y / Do they like t h e new show? 2. Auxiliary verbs appear in anaphoric constructions. (30) Ann has helped us a lot and so has Sue. (31) ' A n n helped us a lot and so helped Sue. (32) Ann helped us a lot and so did Sue. 3. Adverbs such as often, never, or certainly, auxiliary verbs, but not main verbs.

G. ask, know, mean dependent polar questions to a reported utterance. Truman had been trapped once before by that device, when a reporter asked him did he not consider the Hiss case a red herring. " (Murdoch, Prince: 214) As the following examples show, parenthetic polar questions are employed by a speaker as a rhetorical means of presenting a fact indirectly and in a weakened manner. In this case, the modifiers dare and need are frequently used. Within the political world, the days of broad agreement between the main political parties on matters of basic, dare I say patriotic, concern, seem to be ending...

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