Dielectrics and Waves by Arthur R. von Hippel

By Arthur R. von Hippel

Reissued to commemorate the fortieth anniversary of the unique e-book of "Dielectrics and Waves". A entire assurance of an issue that crosses the fields of chemistry, physics and engineering and may be necessary to a person with an curiosity in dielectric engineering.

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6 Electrical output electrical output IR input Responsivity of a detector. 1b) Example: Given that a 30-mV signal results when a detector of area 25 × 10−6 cm2 is exposed to an irradiance of 120 × 10−6 W∕cm2 , what is the responsivity? The incident power is P = EAd = (120 × 10−6 W∕cm2 )(25 × 10−6 cm2 ) = 3 × 10−9 W The responsivity is  = (30 mV)∕(3 × 10−9 W) = 107 V∕W ◾ Responsivity is an important parameter for a detector. It allows the users to determine ahead of time how sensitive a measuring circuit they will require to “see” the expected output, or how much amplifier gain they need to boost the signal to a 14 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW satisfactory level.

1a – but we cannot write a simple equation for that case. Instead, we first consider a simplified case for which we can 1 R. Clarke Jones (1963) coined the word phluometry to describe this generalization, but his proposal was never accepted. 2 Nomenclature and notation have evolved over the years, and can be a stumbling block for the newcomer. Even with newer publications, one should check the nomenclature carefully. 3 for the current convention. 1 Two cases of radiated power or photon transfer.

Some noise sources are fundamental and cannot be avoided. Some of the sources of these fundamental noises are the following: • Photons do not arrive at an absolutely constant rate (the arrival rate fluctuates slightly); • Atoms in the detector vibrate slightly, even at low temperatures; • Electrons move randomly in the detector, not like well-drilled soldiers. Other noise sources arise externally and can be eliminated if we are careful: 1 On the other hand, you cannot count on the use of proper or even consistent nomenclature – we often encounter vague or incorrect requirements.

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