By Phillip M. Boiselle, David Lynch
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Tracheobronchopathia Osteochondroplastica Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is most commonly seen in adult males (2). The disease is characterized by multiple submucosal metaplastic cartilaginous and osseous nodules throughout the large airways (Fig. 1). They appear as firm/hard nonulcerated protruding nodules with fiberoptic bronchoscopy. 4. Tracheobronchomegaly Tracheobronchomegaly (also termed Mounier–Kuhn syndrome) is a rare lung disease associated with markedly dilated large airways, leading to recurrent infections (3–8).
14. (A–F) Left sided bronchial anatomy, illustrated using Boyden’s numbering system (see Table 1 of Chapter 1). Selected axial images through the left bronchial tree demonstrate the left main bronchus (LMB), left upper lobe bronchus (LULB), apical (B1), anterior (B2), and posterior (B3) segmental bronchi of left upper lobe; lingular bronchus (LB) superior (B4) and inferior (B5) segments of lingula; left lower lobe bronchus (LLLB); superior (B6), medial basal (B7), anterior basal (B8), lateral basal (B9), and posterior basal (B10) segments of left lower lobe.
The lower lobe shows bronchiectasis with markedly dilated bronchi. (Used with permission of the American Registry of Pathology; originally published as Fig. 9–5, page 387 in: Non-Neoplastic Disorders of the Lower Respiratory Tract, Travis WD et al. 5). Secondary changes are also seen in the alveolar parenchyma: acute bronchopneumonia, organizing pneumonia, and scarring and obstructive changes may all be seen. Fig. 4. Bronchiectasis. The bronchus is dilated with chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and reactive lymphoid follicles.