By Jiang Hsieh
X-ray computed tomography (CT) keeps to adventure fast development, either in uncomplicated expertise and new medical functions. Seven years after its first version, Computed Tomography: rules, layout, Artifacts, and up to date developments, moment version, offers an summary of the evolution of CT, the mathematical and actual facets of the know-how, and the basics of snapshot reconstruction algorithms. Image exhibit is tested from conventional equipment used during the newest developments. Key functionality indices, theories at the back of the dimension methodologies, and varied size phantoms in snapshot caliber are mentioned. The CT scanner is damaged down into parts to supply the reader with an knowing in their functionality, their newest advances, and their influence at the CT method. common descriptions and assorted different types of artifacts, their reasons, and their corrections are thought of at length. �Read more...
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Extra resources for Computed Tomography: Principles, Design, Artifacts, and Recent Advances, Second Edition
In “real world” clinical CT, this condition is rarely satisfied. The output energy spectrum of an x-ray tube is quite broad. For example, when we select 120 kVp on a CT scanner, the output x-ray photon energies vary between 10 kVp and 120 kVp, as shown in Fig. 14. For the majority of the materials, the value varies significantly with the x-ray energy, as previously illustrated in Fig. 12. Because of the polyenergetic nature of the x-ray beam and the energy dependency of , Eq. 44) is no longer valid.
Because of the polyenergetic nature of the x-ray beam and the energy dependency of , Eq. 44) is no longer valid. The linear relationship between the measured projection and the thickness of the object does not exist. This is the well-known beam-hardening problem. 19–21 A detailed discussion of this subject can be found in Chapter 7. Another challenging problem that affects the accuracy of the projection measurement is scattered radiation. Not all of the x-ray photons that reach the detector are primary photons.
For an x-ray tube operating at 120 kVp, the average photon energy is roughly 70 keV. 1916 cm–1, respectively. Clearly, the difference is quite small. 12 Linear attenuation coefficients for different materials. 40) where water is the linear attenuation coefficient of water. This unit is often called the Hounsfield unit (HU), honoring the inventor of CT. By definition, water has a CT number of zero. The CT number for air is –1000 HU, since air = 0. Soft tissues (including fat, muscle, and other body tissues) have CT numbers ranging from –100 HU to 60 HU.