Communication Systems An Introduction to Signals and Noise by A. Bruce Carlson

By A. Bruce Carlson

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Additional resources for Communication Systems An Introduction to Signals and Noise in Electrical Communication Bruce Carlson (Solutions_Manual)

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The benefits go beyond the single cycle saved by not doing a jump as in the case of the super scalar processor. The jumps on lines 10 and 12 in the second listing depend on the condition code, which in turn depends on the data. Such data-dependent branches are difficult to predict. Assuming that A[i] < B[i] and A[i] ! B[i] are equally likely, the super scalar processor is likely to experience a branch misprediction and the resulting branch penalty half of the time. Going by the VLIW philosophy of conveying performance-critical information from the compiler to the hardware, the final branch on line 12 uses the opcode modifier ‘‘sptk’’ to inform the processor that the branch is statically predicted to be taken.

For that particular loop, a VLIW processor can therefore predict the loop accurately 255 times out of 256 loop iterations without any hardware branch predictor. Even when a hardware branch predictor is available, the instruction advises the processor not to waste a branch history table entry on that branch because its behavior is already known at compile time. 5 Intel Itanium Processor The Itanium-1 processor is Intel’s first implementation of the IA-64 ISA. IA-64 is an ISA for the explicitly parallel instruction computing (EPIC) style of VLIW developed jointly by Intel and HP.

The actual details of the algorithm are beyond the scope of this section. 3 Superblock Scheduling Superblock scheduling is a region scheduling algorithm developed in conjunction with the IMPACT compiler at the University of Illinois. Like trace scheduling, superblock scheduling is based on the premise that extracting ILP from sequential programs requires code motion across multiple basic blocks. Unlike trace scheduling, superblock scheduling is driven by static branch analysis, not profile data.

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