Central Processing of Visual Information A: Integrative by H. Autrum, P. O. Bishop, V. Braitenberg, K. L. Chow, R. L.

By H. Autrum, P. O. Bishop, V. Braitenberg, K. L. Chow, R. L. De Valois, R. B. Freeman, W. A. van de Grind, O.-J. Grüsser, U. Grüsser-Cornehls, R. Jung, W. R. Levick, H.-U. Lunkenheimer, D. M. MacKay, M. Snyder, J. Stone, N. J. Strausfeld, I. Thomas

The current quantity covers the body structure of the visible process past the optic nerve. it's a continuation of the 2 previous components at the photochemistry and the body structure of the attention, and types a bridge from them to the fourth half on visible psychophysics. those fields have all constructed as self sufficient speciali­ ties and want integrating with one another. The processing of visible details within the mind can't be understood with out a few wisdom of the previous mechanisms within the photoreceptor organs. There are primary purposes, ontogenetic and sensible, why this can be so: 1) the retina of the vertebrate eye has built from a really expert a part of the mind; 2) in processing their facts the eyes stick with physiological rules just like the visible mind centres. Peripheral and imperative features also needs to be mentioned in context with their ultimate synthesis in subjective adventure, i. e. visible notion. Microphysiology and ultramicroscopy have introduced new insights into the neuronal foundation of imaginative and prescient. those investigations begun within the outer edge: HARTLINE'S pioneering experiments on unmarried visible components of Limulus in 1932 all started a winning interval of neuronal recordings which ascended from the retina to the top centres within the visible mind. within the final 20 years sleek electron­ microscopic concepts and photochemical investigations of unmarried photoreceptors extra contributed to imaginative and prescient research.

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Bright--dark contrast and predominance of receptive field centre in the cat'8 D 8y8tem for "darker" stimuli at light-on and -00. Lateral activation is induced by a light annulus in the receptive field surround. Modified from POGGIO et al. (1969) [361]. Centre-8urround interaction by light is shown for an off-centre neurone of the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat. The luminance of the central disc is varied while the illumination of background and surround is kept at a constant level. Stimulation of the centre by light (indicated by the bar at the bottom marked C) induces primary inhibition, whereas illumination of the surround (8) induces lateral activation.

This excludes photochemical adaptation and shows that a neurophysiological mechanism induced from the field centre determines the surround effects of lateral activation and inhibition. Neuronal Light Adaptation, Antagonistic Field Organization,Centre-Surround Interaction 35 Influence of Surround upon Centre 1 The centre-surround interaction and centre dominance seem more complex when sinusoidal stimuli are used and the influence of a steady surround appears stronger, as shown by the following example.

The early after-images can be seen and measured in time by a moving light spot [147] during the first second after a brief illumination. They appear as positive images of the original stimulus in human vision and correspond to periodic B discharges in the cat [lSI, 24S]. These are interrupted by pauses and reciprocal D discharges which in turn correspond to the dark intervals in human perception. The after-images of PURKINJE and HESS (upper left, Fig. 1) and their dark intervals correlate particularly well in time with the periodic after-discharges of the two neuronal subsystems in the retina, the lateral geniculate body, and the visual cortex [lSI].

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