Basic Abstract Algebra: For Graduate Students and Advanced by Robert B. Ash

By Robert B. Ash

This survey of fundamental algebraic buildings employs suggestions acceptable to arithmetic, physics, engineering, and laptop technology. issues contain relatives among teams and units, the basic theorem of Galois conception, and the implications and strategies of summary algebra when it comes to quantity concept, geometry, and noncommutative and homological algebra. recommendations. 2006 edition.

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4 Example Let R = Z8 , which is not an integral domain. The polynomial f (X) = X 3 has four roots in R, namely 0,2,4 and 6. 5 In the following sequence of problems, we review the Euclidean algorithm. Let a and b be positive integers, with a > b. Divide a by b to obtain a = bq1 + r1 with 0 ≤ r1 < b, then divide b by r1 to get b = r1 q2 + r2 with 0 ≤ r2 < r1 , and continue in this fashion until the process terminates: r 1 = r 2 q 3 + r 3 , 0 ≤ r 3 < r2 , .. rj−2 = rj−1 qj + rj , 0 ≤ rj < rj−1 , rj−1 = rj qj+1 .

Suppose that f is a polynomial in D[X] and that f can be factored as gh, where g and h belong to F [X]. Then there is a nonzero element λ ∈ F such that λg ∈ D[X] and λ−1 h ∈ D[X]. Thus if f is factorable over F , then it is factorable over D. Equivalently, if f is irreducible over D, then f is irreducible over F . Proof. The coefficients of g and h are quotients of elements of D. If a is the least common denominator for g (technically, the least common multiple of the denominators of the coefficients of g), then g ∗ = ag ∈ D[X].

For transitivity, suppose that (a, b) ∼ (c, d) and (c, d) ∼ (e, f ). Then for some elements s and t in S we have s(ad − bc) = 0 and t(cf − de) = 0. Multiply the first equation by tf and the second by sb, and add the results to get std(af − be) = 0, which implies that (a, b) ∼ (e, f ), proving transitivity. If a ∈ R and b ∈ S, we define the fraction ab to be the equivalence class of the pair (a, b). The set of all equivalence classes is denoted by S −1 R, and is called (in view of what we are about to prove) the ring of fractions of R by S.

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