Animal Hormones. A Comparative Survey by Penelope M. Jenkin

By Penelope M. Jenkin

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An early stage in development of the brain and stomodaeum (St) shows the ADENOHYPOPHYSIS (Hyp) growing up to meet the infundibulum (Inf), or NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, from the floor of the fore brain (F) ; together they form the pituitary body. Optic chiasma (OC), pineal organ (Pin), spinal cord (CNS) and notochord (Neh). The pharynx, leading to oesophagus (Oes), is shown at a later stage; I to VI, visceral arches; I I I to VI with branchial arteries running behind gill slits to dorsal aorta (DA); THYROID (Th) is mid-ventral; a series of ventrolateral epithelial thickenings form the carotid gland (C) on I I I , the PARATHYROIDS (P) on IV and V, and the ULTIMOBRANCHIAL BODY (U) on VI.

26 SOURCES OF KINETIC AND METABOLIC HORMONES in the brain still in place; removal of the sinus gland only (by means of a minute punch, like an apple corer; Kleinholz, 1947) leaves both sources undamaged and able to continue their secretion. Dorsal ME SG Ml MT FIG. 2-6. Eyestalk of prawn, Lysmata, cut open in the vertical plane (cf. Fig. 2-5). Some neurosecretory cells in the ganglionicX-organ (GXO) in the terminal medulla (MT) have axons which pass in a bundle (X-SG) to the SINUS GLAND (SG) on the dorsal surface of the external medulla (ME) ; others have axons (X-SP) that pass ventrally to HANSTRÖM 'S SENSORY PORE ORGAN (HSPO) and end in "onion bodies" (ON).

Hanström! s sensory pore organ The sensory pore organ, like the sinus gland, is the storage-andrelease organ for neurosecretory cells some of which are situated within the BRAIN and others in the GANGLIONIC-X-ORGAN. All the axons have their endings swollen into characteristic onionshaped bodies in HANSTROM'S SENSORY PORE ORGAN, situated on the ventral surface of the eyestalk in Malacostraca (Fig. 2-6). In addition to these axon endings and to the sensory cells, which give their name to the organ, there are some small secretory cells confined within the organ, at least in Lysmata (Carlisle and Passano, 1953).

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