Advances in Diverse Industrial Applns of Nanocomposites by B. Reddy

By B. Reddy

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J. (2010a) . Rigid polyurethane foam reinforced with cellulose whiskers: Synthesis and characterization. [journal article]. ; Ren, H. F. & Ragauskas, A. J. (2010b). Rigid polyurethane foam/cellulose whisker nanocomposites: preparation, characterization, and properties. ; Kim, S. H. & Kim, B. K. (2008). Effects of silicon surfactant in rigid polyurethane foams. Express Polymer Letters, 2, 3, 194-200 Liu, D. ; Zhong, T. ; Chang, P. ; Li, K. F. & Wu, Q. L. (2010). Starch composites reinforced by bamboo cellulosic crystals.

A Table 11. , 2010). 0 Table 12. , 2010b). 8 Table 13. , 2007). 5. Summary and conclusions The wide availability, renewable and biodegradable features, simple hydrolysis process, and high intrinsic strength and modulus, high aspect ratio and reactivity make cellulose nano whiskers superior to other traditional nano fillers. The reinforcing effect of whiskers in PU is accomplished through both chemical and hydrogen bonding between whiskers and/or the and matrix. Improvements of thermal and mechanical properties of cellulose nano whiskers reinforced nanocomposites are remarkable compared to some other inorganic fillers as well as cellulose fibers and microfibrils.

1998). , 4 wt% for a salt-free whiskers suspension. , 2005). It is not possible to observe any chiral nematic phase of whiskers hydrolyzed by other acids. , 2000). 3. 1 Starting materials Starting materials are highly important in view of the desired properties for specific applications of PUs. In general, at least two polyols and an isocyanate are required for a proper performance of PU. Difunctional polymers are preferred for a linear or low crosslinked PU as illustrated in Figure 2. ’s work (2006), a mixture of di- and multi-functional polyols and polymeric 4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) were used.

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