By Gabriel Reynolds
In 385 AH/AD 995 the Qadi 'Abd al-Jabbar, renowned for his Mu'tazili theological writings, wrote the affirmation of the Proofs of Prophecy, a piece that features a inventive polemic opposed to Christianity. 'Abd al-Jabbar reinterprets the Bible, Church background (especially the lives of Paul and Constantine) and Christian perform to argue that Christians replaced the Islamic faith of Jesus. the current paintings starts with an exam of the arguable idea that this polemic used to be borrowed from an unknown Judaeo-Christian team. the writer argues that 'Abd al-Jabbar's polemic is healthier understood as a reaction to his specific milieu and the on-going inter-religious debates of the medieval Islamic international. by way of studying the lifestyles and regarded 'Abd al-Jabbar, in addition to the Islamic, Christian and Jewish antecedants to his polemic, the writer uncovers the intimate courting among sectarian controversy and the advance of an Islamic doctrine on Christianity.
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Extra resources for A Muslim Theologian in the Sectarian Milieu: Abd al-Jabbar and the Critique of Christian Origins (Islamic History and Civilization)
J. (vol. J. J. and D. Gimaret (vol. 2) and J. Peters (vol. 3), 3 vols. (Beirut: Dàr al-Mashriq, 1965–1999), 1:222ﬀ. The Shar˙ is actually the work of 'Abd al-Jabbàr’s student Shashdìw Mànkdìm (A˙mad b. Abì Hàshim al-Qazwìnì, d. 425/1034), although it is largely a record of 'Abd al-Jabbàr’s opinions. 8 By discussing that context in the present chapter, moreover, I will address not only how he wrote the Critique, but also why he wrote it. 1. 1. 9 Many works have been written on the Mu'tazila, a group that has been studied since the beginning of western scholarship on Islam,10 and I intend here neither to adumbrate the results of this scholarship nor to challenge it.
See G. Vajda, “Judaeo-Arabic: Judaeo-Arabic Literature,” EI 2, 4:302–307. an introduction to the CRITIQUE 15 'Abd al-Jabbàr, then, seeking to prove that Christians changed the Islamic religion of Jesus, is measuring the Christian Jesus against the Qur"ànic Jesus. Thus he argues that the Cross and cruciﬁxion were not in the original Injìl because the Qur"ànic Jesus is not cruciﬁed (Q 4:157). It might be objected, however, that this conclusion avoids the issue, for the Qur"àn itself may have been inﬂuenced by JudaeoChristianity and thus the Critique, being inﬂuenced by the Qur"àn, is therefore indeed a Judaeo-Christian text.
See Bosworth, “Rayy,” EI 2, 8:473. 6 Ibn al-Jawzì, MuntaΩam, 8:40 7 Cf. al-Mughnì, 5:80–151; Shar˙ al-ußùl al-khamsa, ed. 'Abd al-Karìm 'Uthmàn (Cairo: Maktabat al-Wahba, 1965), 291–8; al-Majmù" fì l-mu˙ì† bi-l-taklìf, ed. J. J. (vol. J. J. and D. Gimaret (vol. 2) and J. Peters (vol. 3), 3 vols. (Beirut: Dàr al-Mashriq, 1965–1999), 1:222ﬀ. The Shar˙ is actually the work of 'Abd al-Jabbàr’s student Shashdìw Mànkdìm (A˙mad b. Abì Hàshim al-Qazwìnì, d. 425/1034), although it is largely a record of 'Abd al-Jabbàr’s opinions.