By Klaus J Puettmann; K Dave Coates; Christian C Messier
Read Online or Download A critique of silviculture : managing for complexity PDF
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Extra resources for A critique of silviculture : managing for complexity
They simply did not have a commonly accepted, documented “toolbox” to assist in the selection. This led to the development of a wide variety of localized practices (Mantel 1990). By the late eighteenth century, as forestry and silviculture developed into an established discipline, silvicultural practices, including silvicultural systems, began to be classified and documented (Mayr 1909) (figs. 3). The formal education ensured that foresters were aware of the full variety of common silvicultural practices, but it also meant that for educational purposes these practices had to be categorized.
1). Applications of inappropriate silvicultural practices were less quickly discarded when they were forced upon a region through regulatory means, commonly by dominant or well-recognized silviculturists or administrators. In cases where silviculturists had a personal stake, their status and reputation could delay abandonment of unsuccessful practices for decades after problems were identified. Examples of such behavior go beyond silviculture and include Georg Hartig’s approach to forest inventory and planning (Hartig 1795).
Furthermore, the cuttings could be done during the less busy winter months, which allowed implementation of the frequent intensive forest management practices necessary to maintain the uneven-aged stand structure (Mantel 1990). , Emmental in Switzerland or the southern Black Forest in Germany) are composed of shade-tolerant tree species, such as European silver fir. The regeneration of mixed European silver fir historical context of silviculture 35 and Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands required larger openings leading to development of the group-selection system.