3D Laser Microfabrication: Principles and Applications by Sami Franssila

By Sami Franssila

A radical creation to 3D laser microfabrication expertise, best readers from the basics and concept to its numerous effective purposes, equivalent to the new release of tiny gadgets or three-d constructions in the bulk of obvious materials.The booklet additionally offers new theoretical fabric on dielectric breakdown, permitting a greater realizing of the variations among optical harm on surfaces and contained in the bulk, in addition to a glance into the future.Chemists, physicists, fabrics scientists and engineers will locate this a necessary resource of interdisciplinary wisdom within the box of laser optics and nanotechnology.

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4 Laser–Solid Interaction at High Intensity The major mechanisms of absorption in the low intensity laser–solid interaction are inter-band transitions. The absorption of a photon beam with near band-gap energy at low intensity is small, which corresponds to a large real and small imaginary part of the dielectric function. The optical parameters (refractive index) in these conditions are only slightly changed during the interaction in comparison with those of the cold material. The absorption can be increased if the photon energy increases above the band-gap value with loss of transparency or/and if the incident light intensity increases to a level where the energy of the electron oscillations in the laser field becomes comparable to the band-gap energy.

The Coulomb terms can be neglected if ND >> 1. One can easily see that, using the above estimates, in the case considered, ND ~ 25. Thus, a solid is transformed into a state of ideal gas at solid-state density. 4 Electron-to-ion Energy Transfer: Heat Conduction and Shock Wave Formation The electron-to-ion energy exchange rate, men, in plasma is expressed via the electron–ion momentum exchange rate, mei, in accordance with Landau [5] as follows: ven » me v mi ei (35) The electron–ion collision rate for the momentum exchange in ideal plasma is well known [6]: vei » 3 · 10À6 lnK ne Z 3=2 TeV (36) Here Z is the ion charge and lnK is the Coulomb logarithm.

We approximate the energy deposition volume by the sphere with radius, r0. Ea relates to the absorbed laser energy. The cooling of a heated volume of plasma is described by the three-dimensional nonlinear equation [36]: ¶T ¶ ¶T ¼ r 2 DT n ¶r ¶r ¶r (37) The thermal diffusion coefficient is defined conventionally as the following: D¼ le ve v2 ¼ e 3 3 vei (38) Here le, ve and mei are the electron mean free path, the velocity and the collision rate from (36) respectively. It is convenient to express the diffusion coefficient by the temperature at the end of the laser pulse, T0 (the initial temperature for cooling):  5=2 T 2T0 D ¼ D0 ; D0 ¼ (39) T0 3 me vei ðT0 Þ Here n = 5/2 as for ideal plasma.

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