3D laser microfabrication : principles and applications by Hiroaki Misawa, Saulius Juodkazis

By Hiroaki Misawa, Saulius Juodkazis

An intensive advent to 3D laser microfabrication know-how, prime readers from the basics and conception to its a variety of powerful purposes, similar to the iteration of tiny items or 3-dimensional constructions in the bulk of obvious fabrics. The booklet additionally provides new theoretical fabric on dielectric breakdown, permitting a greater figuring out of the diversities among optical harm on surfaces and contained in the bulk, in addition to a glance into the longer term. Chemists, physicists, fabrics scientists and engineers will locate this a important resource of interdisciplinary wisdom within the box of laser optics and nanotechnology.

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Thus, they can be gradually accelerated to an energy in excess of the band-gap. The process of electron acceleration can be represented, in a simplified way, as for Joule heating [22]: e2 v x2 veÀph de  eÀph  E 2 ¼ 2eosc   ¼ dt 2m* v2 þ x2 v2 þ x 2 eÀph (23) eÀph Here e, m*, meff are respectively the electron charge, the effective mass, and the e2 E 2 effective collision rate; x, E, and eosc ¼ 4m* x2 are the laser frequency, the electric field and the electron oscillation energy in the field.

Multiphoton ionization creates the initial (seed) electron density, n0, which then grows by the avalanche process. Multiphoton ionization can proceed in two limits separated by the value of the Keldysh parameter C 2 ¼ eosc =Dgap ~ 1. Tunneling ionization occurs in conditions when x << eE=ðDg mÞ1=2 or Dgap << eosc. The ionization probability in this case does not depend on the frequency of the field and parallels the action of a static field [33, 34]: wtunnel " " #  1=2 # 3=2 Dg Dg 4 Dg ð2mÞ1=2 4 Dg Dg » exp À exp À ¼ "x eE "x 3 " 3 "x eosc (27) The multi-quantum photo-effect takes place in the opposite limit Dgap > eosc.

6 Conclusions In this chapter we have attempted to review the physics of the laser interaction inside a transparent solid on the basis of experimental and theoretical studies that have been reported over the past decade. The main focus has been on interactions at high intensity when the material undergoes optical breakdown and is swiftly converted into the plasma state early in the pulse. We would like to draw some conclusions to clarify three issues summarizing: i) what we know on the subject; (ii) what we don’t know, and (iii) how the knowledge already gained can be used in applications to create three-dimensional optical memories and the formation of photonic crystals.

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